Linguistics Science

World English – or World Englishes?

It is very important for us to acknowledge and comprehend language from its origin. English language holds a significant importance as it is one of the most commonly accepted and medium of communication across the Globe.

‘World English’ is a topic commonly debated in language circles and now discussed in daily newspapers – but what is meant by the term? There seem to be several distinct interpretations:

It is used to mean the core English vocabulary, that part of the language common to all English speakers, over which there can be no dispute – the vocabulary and grammatical structures which are common to English wherever it is spoken. (Some might call this Standard English).

‘World English’ is sometimes interpreted as referring to an artificially sanitized form of English for international use, purged of all regional quirks and peculiarities. This ‘World English’ is perhaps understood as being used among second-language speakers, possibly with theoretical mid-Atlantic neutrality. (An alternative term might be International English).

Finally, there is the understanding of the term that will be reflected in the discussion that follows. ‘World English’ is understood here as a collective term for all the different varieties of English worldwide, for the sum of the core vocabularies or central word-stocks of each English-speaking region – including England. In this sense it is possibly clearer to use the term World Englishes rather than ‘World English’. Read more…


Semiotics is a science of signs and/or sign systems. It has a very significant role it corporate communication where organizations attempt to comprehend the culture and the values of their target market and accordingly device strategies to attract and lure them. It is thus an elemental study of the signs, signals and pointers which attempt to correlate the relevance and meaning of a sign to its environmental parlance. Semiotic is the branch of study which identifies the way a meaning is deciphered rather than expressing the actual meaning of a word.

Signifier is a unit of semiotic which brings out the relevance of any material object in terms of its meaning. For instance it explains the meaning of words written on a script, a visual image, non-verbal expressions etc. Signified on the other hand refers to the basic concept that the signifier explains and directs. When a signifier is combined with signified it is referred to as semiotic branch of study. Read more…


Persuasion is both an art and science as it involves explaining the audience events that are based on some facts and this process of explanation requires an expert skill which is art in itself. We would like to know that should the speakers be plain, simple and to the point? Or do they require creative manipulation in presenting the ideas in such a way that leaves the audience mesmerized? The answer would be the latter option obviously as everyone looks ahead to be convinced and persuaded not only by the facts and figures but also through the art of Rhetoric.

Define Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the skill used in public speaking and expression to influence and motivate the audience in a particular situation. It supports public discourse and results in convincing speech and an impressive piece of writing which persuades and creates an indelible impression on the audience. Rhetoric has been studied as one of the most important subjects in linguist skills and has played a very important role in the western tradition. Read more…


The purpose of punctuation is to mark out strings of words into manageable groups and to show how these groups are related to each other. Correct punctuation clarifies both the meaning of the individual words and the construction of the sentences as a whole, so that even quite complex sentences can be understood at first reading, without stumbling or backtracking. To some extent, therefore, punctuation acts as a substitute for the devices we all use in speech, such as pausing and altering pitch; however, the differences between written and spoken language mean that the parallel should not be pushed too far.

Punctuation shouldn’t cause as much fear as it does. Only about a dozen marks need to be measured and the guidelines are fairly stable. The marks most commonly used to divide a piece of prose are the full stop, the semicolon, and the comma with the strength of the dividing or separating role diminishing the full stop to the comma. The full stop therefore marks the main division into sentences; the semicolon joins sentences (as in this sentence); and the comma, which is the most flexible in use and causes most problems, separates smaller elements with the least loss of continuity. Brackets and dashes also serve as separators – often more strikingly than commas (as in this sentence). Read more…

Linguistic Applications in Paralanguage

The study of paralanguage focuses on how you say what you say. Two identical verbal messages may communicate entirely different meanings when the tone of voice is different. The tone of our voice, the loudness, softness, rate of speech and the words we choose to accent, communicate a great deal.

Paralanguage has several component parts: voice qualities, voice qualifiers, voice characteristics and verbal segregates.

1. Voice qualities:

Voice qualities include such things as volume, rate of speech, pitch, rhythm, pronunciation and enunciation. Read more…

Historical Linguistic

The English language has an increasingly influential position in the world, but accurate statistics are difficult to provide. It is impossible to give a satisfactory answer to the question ‘How many countries use English as their first language’? As the definition of ‘first language’ differs from place to place, according to each country’s history and local circumstances. The following examples illustrate the complexities:

Australia, Botswana, the Commonwealth Caribbean nations, Gambia, Ghana, Guyana, Ireland, Namibia, New Zealand, Uganda, the United Kingdom, the United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe have English as either statutory or de facto official language – but it is often the second or third language of the majority of citizens

In Cameroon & Canada, English shares official status with French, as does English and each main local language in the Nigerian states.

In Fiji, English is the official language with Fijian; in Lesotho with Sesotho; in Pakistan with Urdu; in the Philippines with Filipino; and in Switzerland with Siswati.

In India, English is an associate official language (after Hindi) and in Singapore English is one of four statutory official languages. Read more…

Composition Studies

What is Reading Comprehension?

Comprehension is the ‘capacity for understanding fully, the act or action of grasping with the intellect’. A comprehension passage is, therefore, text set for testing the reader’s ability to receive or take in the sense of a text by scanning; understanding the meaning of written or printed matter; learning from what one has seen or found in writing or printing. Merely identifying words on a page does not make someone a successful reader. Reading comprehension tests the reader’s ability to comprehend the content as well as organization, style and theme of the passage.

Questions on a passage generally appear in a chronological relationship to the passage. If they are questions to test local understanding based on facts available in the passage, then the first questions should be in the earlier paragraphs. If they are inferential, that is, where you have to make an assumption, then you might have to collate material from various paragraphs. This would require familiarity with the entire passage. Besides this, even questions where you may be asked for instance, to give a suitable title to the passage, would again need for you to know the entire passage well. Read more…

Application of Kinesics in Linguistic Abilities

Kinesics: Human beings communicate a lot through body movements and facial expressions. Kinesics is the study of this kind of communication. Kinesics is one of the most significant aspects of applied Linguistic, as it studies the non-verbal component of expression and communication. Kinesis is the study of physical movements during reading, writing, listening and speaking. This physical movement signifies divergent aspects of personality which are very important to study and plan further communication process. Let us look at how different body movements and facial expressions communicate different messages. Read more…

 Page 2 of 2 « 1  2